World-systems and Dependency theories. 24 Gender edit Main article: Gender inequality Gender is one of the most pervasive and prevalent social characteristics which people use to make social distinctions between individuals. "The Past, Present and Future of Social Inequality." In Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective (Second Edition) (PDF). 39 By contrast, for 2012, the World Bank reports that 21 percent of people worldwide, around.5 billion, live in extreme poverty, at or below.25 a day. Most of the prominent politicians and corporate leaders have been strong proponents of military spending.